Main Computer Components and Their Functions

Computer components are the heart of any computer system. Without them, the machine would be useless. In this guide, I’ll cover the main computer components-what they do and how you can use them to make your powerful PC.



The CPU often referred to as the “brain” of the computer, is responsible for executing instructions. It’s the most important component of a computer and is typically the most expensive. The CPU is a small chip that sits on the motherboard and is responsible for carrying out the instructions of the operating system and applications. The faster the CPU, the more powerful the computer will be.



The motherboard connects all the components and allows them to communicate with each other. The motherboard also has slots for the CPU, RAM, and storage, as well as ports for connecting peripherals such as a keyboard, mouse, and monitor.



RAM, (Random Access Memory), is temporary storage used by the CPU to hold data and instructions. The more RAM a computer has, the more programs it can run at the same time. When the computer is turned off, the contents of the RAM are lost. This is why it’s important to save any work that you want to keep before shutting down your computer.

Graphics Card(s)


A graphics card also called video card is the most important component in a gaming PC. The best GPUs have high core counts and high memory speeds, while the cheaper options tend to be less powerful but still offer great value.

The most important GPU specs to look at are memory and core count: how many shaders (graphics processing units) do you need? Core counts usually range from 1120 up to 5200+ depending on what type of games your system is designed for; higher numbers indicate more power to price, so keep an eye out for this when shopping around for GPUs.

Storage Devices


Storage is where the computer’s operating system, programs, and files are stored. The main types of storage include hard drives and solid-state drives.

a. Hard drive: The hard disk is the main component of your computer’s storage system, which holds all of your data. It provides access to files, applications, and programs on your computer by moving them around inside the storage device itself.

b. SSD: Solid State Drive (SSD) is a type of storage device that uses flash memory instead of traditional rotating disks for storing data. This type of drive is much faster than its mechanical counterpart because it doesn’t need to physically move parts around to read or write information from/to the disks like hard drives do.

Power Supply Unit (PSU)


The PSU is a very important part of a computer, as it converts AC electricity into DC electricity. This helps power up all the components in your PC and keep them running smoothly. The PSU has multiple connectors for different types of devices, including USB ports and DisplayPort (DP).

The main function of the PSU is to convert AC current into DC current before sending it through cables that connect to other parts of your system like the motherboard or graphics card. An example would be if you want to connect two monitors; they will need separate power supplies because they have different voltages than each other’s input voltage requirements.

Input/ Output (I/O) Devices


I/O devices are the components that allow the computer to interact with the user. A keyboard and mouse are examples of input devices, while a monitor is an example of an output device.



Peripherals are additional devices that can be connected to the computer, such as printers, scanners, and external storage. These devices can be added to the computer to expand its capabilities.


In conclusion, a computer is made up of many different components, each with its specific function. Understanding these components can help you make informed decisions when it comes to purchasing or upgrading your computer.

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